§ 440. Two of the proposed Articles2 were rejected; but the other ten were ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States, and constitute the first ten of the Amendments now making a part of the Constitution. In these, certain particular rights are plainly declared or recognized, as natural, legal, and subsisting rights of the people, and so made their constitutional rights. They become a part of the supreme law of the land, and so bind the government, and all subordinate governments, — every body, in fact, owing allegiance to the Constitution.1
1. The free exercise of religion, without any legal establishment thereof.
2. The freedom of speech and of the press.
3. The right to assemble and petition the government.5
4. The right to keep and bear arms.8
1 Case of Dart. Coll., p. 59, per Jer. Mason, arguendo.
2 In Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank, v. Smith, 6 Wheat. Rep., 181.
• Prigg's Case, 16 Peters' Rep., 628.
6. To security from unreasonable searches and seizures and illegal warrants.2
7. To exemption from trial for infamous crime, unless on indictment by a grand jury, or in army or navy.
8. To exemption from more than one trial for the same offence.
9. To exemption from being a witness against himself in a criminal case.
10. To life, liberty, and property, till deprived by due process of law.
11. To just compensation for property taken for public use.8
12. In criminal cases, to distinct accusation, speedy public trial, impartial jury of the State where committed, witness personally present in Court, his own witnesses and counsel.4
13. To trial by jury in civil suits at commonlaw.5
14. To exemption from excessive bail or fines, and cruel or unusual punishments.8
15. The mention of particular rights not to disparage others not mentioned.7
16. A reserved right to all powers not delegated to the State or general governments.8 ,