Sunday, June 23, 2013

"the universal principle of defence, which is another name for that great law of nature, the right of preservation"

   "Literary improvements, the use of the mariners' compass, with astronomical science, the art of printing and gun powder had shaken the fabric of a stupendous despotism.
"Language, science, arts, commerce, war, government, religion, all were changed since the Roman eagles were seen in Asia beyond the sources of the Euphrates and Tigris. The circuit of the Roman empire when fallen to decay exhibited a general depression, in which the human character was debased, and the social body disjointed. The empire of the west being overwhelmed by irruptions from the north, new governments, with new laws, new arts, new manners, new names, new languages, arise from the ruins. Such was the origin of the feudal states which became known as states of Christendom. The whirldwind out of the north shook the Roman world and accomplished one of the most signal revolutions in the history of the human race.
"The eastern remains of the empire were overwhelmed by the followers Mahomet. The famous library of Alexandria was given to the flames. And the Mahometan warriors pushed their conquests to mount Atlas, sweeping over all that part of Africa which had been under the dominion of Rome. The temple of Jerusalem was occupied as a mosque. The Assiatic provinces were seized. Greece was overrun. Constantinople became the prize of the followers of Mahomet under the Ottoman race. And the Mahometan empire advanced to the conflict against Christendom .After horrible collisions, the Mahometan arms were shattered before the christian chivalry. A power which did not acknowledge the koran began to be known on the borders of the Black Sea. Russia was emerging, military science, the interests of commerce and general civilization were regarded as objects of a systematic policy in Russia after the accession of he Czar Peter who look the title of emperor. At the close of the seventeenth century, the general state of the christian world was not endangered by the Mahometan power. In 1699, a pence was concluded for the borders of Christendom. It was a moment of general tranquillity in Europe. And infant colonies along the western verge of the Atlantic ocean were founding the future empire of the United States of America.
   "The progress towards a new cast human affairs is observable. Feudal dominion in Europe was divided among various states whose territorial claims were now settled by solemn agreements authenticated in regular form, and preserved in public records. Their titles were to be seen as in a general registry which was open to the civilized world. In determining the outlines of territorial and describing the interests to be enjoyed, positive conventions between states, formed muniments of title and contributed to assure the relations of peace. Such conventions being sealed in form interchangeably delivered, became of the highest authenticity and were regarded in public law as common assurances of national rights. Accordingly the states of feudal Europe had their several territories where they exclusive jurisdiction, while they acknowledged general principles of law as applicable to all. Such an of states was a novelty in empire. had similar tenures of candid interests, with similar institutions of government. They had similar distinctions of rank, with similar usages and honours in relation to achievements of arms. The modes of proceeding in military stipulations with the courtesies of chivalry, served to fashion rules of intercourse between public powers. All of them professed the religion of Christianity. In questions between powers, appeals were made to the general sense of Christendom. A political equipoise for general security, or what is understood by the balance of power, was regarded as a consideration which concerned the common welfare of states. The art of printing facilitated the communication of knowledge and opinions. The work of Grotius on war and peace was given to the world. And the public law of Europe in relation to continental rights was generally settled in the seventeenth century. On land, private war was repressed, and public war was governed by acknowledged laws. In the course of eleven centuries, the nations struggled into order.

   "New questions were to arise in the progress of maritime commerce and colonization. The principles of social order were to be extended over the ocean, as they were to be applied in relation to the maritime interests of different countries. And the territorial establishments with the interior police, which maintained domestic order in each maritime country, formed the strong foundation which was essential to the extension of order over the ocean. The social order perfectly accords with the universal principle of defence, which is another name for that great law of nature, the right of preservation. According to a policy truly defensive, the social force gives protection to private life, and organized strength is friendly to innocent activity. It is a national policy, in which the pacific character is associated with the determined resistance to injury. It is the science of order exemplified in the administration of affairs, a policy of national justice, liberty, peace. Where order deigns lo come, here sister liberty will not be far, is the eloquence of poetry teaching philosophic truth..." 

we follow, with our bosoms bare, Nor heed the storm that howls along the sky." Smollett VOLUME II. FROM MAY TO OCTOBER, 1814. NEW-YORK: PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY THE EDITOR, NO. 34, CEDAR STREET. Pg. 293-95]

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