Friday, February 28, 2014

"It declares that the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed...."

...THE BASIS OF THE REPUBLIC.

   In times like these it becomes necessary to return to the consideration of elementary principles.

   The first question presented is what constitutes this Government a republic?

   It is a Republic because the people are free--because there is a recognition of the right of self-government--because the creation of a royal family is impossible; because inherent rights are deemed to belong to every citizen which are regarded as inalienable and of which he cannot be deprived without his consent or due process of law--these are the essential characters which pertain to a republican form of government.

   Liberty is its cornerstone. The right of suffrage is one of the pillars of the structure. The enactment of laws by the people through representatives chosen by themselves is one of its attributes. "No taxation without representation" and "government by the consent of the governed" are cardinal maxims which appropriately express the principles underlying free institutions.

   Written constitutions wherein the powers granted to those in authority and the powers and rights reserved to the people are specified and defined. have come to be regarded as essential to the safety and perpetuity of representative governments.

   The Constitution of the United State constitutes the basis of our Republic. It is the sheet anchor of our liberties. It guarantees religlous liberty, freedom of speech, (Continued on Third Page.) (Continued from First Page.) and freedom of press. It protects the right of the people at all times to peacefully assemble and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. It declares that the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. It regards a citizen's home as his castle, and declares that no soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the eonsent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. it provides that no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States, and prohibits any law respecting an establishment of religion. It guarantees the personal liberty of the citizen, and declares that the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, and regulates the methods of procedure in all cases of seizures and searches.

   It protects the citizens from governmental tyranny and oppression by providing that no person shall be held to answer for an infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall he be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.

   We are indebted to the wisdom of the provisions of that Constitution for our national unity, our national progress, our national glory--for all that we have been, and are, and hope to be as a nation
THE CONSTITUTION SUPREME.

   It is the contention of the Democratic party that the Constitution is and must be supreme over every portion of our country. Hence there can be no such thing as an American colony belonging to the United States and over which our Constitution has no jurisdiction. Such a situation is impossible under our form of government. It would be an anomaly. We must govern ourselves and all our possessions under the provisions of our Constitution, or else we have no right to govern at all....

[The Times, Richmond, VA., Wednesday, October 03, 1900. Vol. 15. No. 200. Pgs. 1&3 - Excerpted from the article: "David Bennett Hill Had A Big Crowd To Hear Him"]

"The people of Indiana have a much clearer right to purchase and carry arms than the Provost Marshal of Indiana...."

Indiana Democracy.

   The Democratic State Central Committee of Indiana, at its recent meeting issued an address to the people, in which the following sound and emphatic recommendations are made:

   First That while it is the well considered and inflexible purpose of the Democratic party of this State, acting in concert with all patriotic citizens who respect the purity of the ballot and desire the public good, to maintain by force, if need be, and at all hazards, the right of the people to free and fair elections, we condemn any attempt at resistance of the laws before constitutional remedies are exhausted, and earnestly advise all men to abide patiently the action of the chosen representatives of the Democratic party at Chicago, on the 29th of August, looking forward to the coming election for a peaceful and constitutional redress of grievances more effectual than violence.

   Second in times of public peril like the present, and in view of what are believed to be well founded apprehensions of attempts on the part of those in authority to interfere by military power with the freedom of elections, patriotism and prudence alike demand that the constitutional right of the people to keep and bear arms as a necessary means of defense to a free State, should not be violated nor abandoned; and it is the right and duty of all good citizens to co-operate in open lawful organizations for the protection of the freedom of elections, and for the preservation of peace and constitutional order and the rights of the people within the State, as well as for its defense against invasion, and we especially recommend to the people in all their counties, townships and election precincts thorough organization for these ends.

   The story now agitating the Abolition papers about finding four hundred revolvers in the establishment of a Democrat in Indianapolis, and the accompanying horrors with which it is garnished in the Abolition papers, originated from the above paragraphs of the committee's address. The people of Indiana have a much clearer right to purchase and carry arms than the Provost Marshal of Indiana has to break open a citizen's safe and abstract its contents. The idea which Morton, Carrington, and Jones intend to convey in their bombastic disclosures, that the Copperheads of Indiana propose to resist the United States army with four hundred revolvers, is an absurdity, and would not be proclaimed but for the fact that Morton knows he will be defeated at the polls, and invents these stupendous lies in order to have martial law declared and thus prevent fair election. It is notorious that the Union Leaguers carry arms, and for the avowed purpose of shooting their political opponents upon favorable opportunities; but these Leaguers will find themselves dreadfully mistaken if they expect to find those whom they propose to attack unarmed and unprepared for the defense of their persons. The pretended surprise of the Abolitionists at the discovery of revolvers in the possession of Democrats is perfectly well understood and is held at its proper value. If there is anything treasonable or criminal in Democrats carrying weapons for the defense of their persons from dangers with which they are openly and publicly threatened, then the Abolitionists alone are to blame for the offense, for they set the example of arming and made the excuse for it by their threats. The great Abolition meeting in Indianapolis Monday night did a good thing in denouncing their secret and armed societies, and the only parties to whom the denunciations of that meeting can be properly applied are the Loyal Leaguers, in Indiana and elsewhere.

[The Daily Ohio Statesman, Columbus, Ohio, Wednesday Morning, August 24, 1864. Vol. XXXII. Number 47. Pg. 2]

Prominent among these guarantees are the following . . . The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed..."

...DECLARATION:

   The Democracy of Illinois, in mast Convention assembled, In view of the alarming encroachments on popular and individual rights by the federal and State Administrations, do declare the the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land, as well in time of war as in time of peace. We will obey it on all occasions, and in that obedience we will exercise all the privilege, and claim all the immunities guaranteed by that Instrument. Prominent among these guarantees are the following:

   "Congress shall make no law * * * * abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

   "* * The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

   "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized....

...Which guarantees have each been reputedly violated by the federal administration, in the exercise of arbitrary power without sanction of law, but in direct conflict therewith.

   2. The Federal Administration has, through its agents and subordinate officers, issued and enforced orders "abridging freedom of speech;" and has assumed to limit its exercise to those only who would slavishly laud its policy and indorse its measures.

   3. It has sought to restrain "freedom of the press," by making use of the military power to suppress the publication of public journals in loyal States, for the only offense of differing from the Administration on measures of public policy, of vital interest to every citizen.

   4. It has, with indifference and without rebuke, seen the military power attempt to deny the people of loyal States the right "peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

   5. It has permitted the issuance and enforcement of military orders preventing the people of the loyal States from "keeping and bearing arms."....

[The Daily Ohio Statesman, June 21, 1863. Vol. X. No. 9. Pg. 1 - Excerpted from the Article; "Great Democratic Mass Convention in Illinois.]

Thursday, February 27, 2014

"The right of the people to bear arms is essential to liberty. It is a right that tyrants have always tried to destroy...."

"...Among the Germans every free man went armed. "They transact no public nor private business," says  Tacitus, "without being armed." When a youth arrived at the age of manhood he was brought before the assembled warriors of his tribe, and one of the chiefs in the name of the tribe presented him with a shield and a spear. It was his badge of citizenship and proof of his freedom. He became at the same time a citizen and a warrior. Taking his seat among other freemen, he heard questions of policy discussed and cast his first vote. He voted by rattling his spear against his shield. He was exercising the two great privileges essential to constitutional government--the right to vote and the right to fight. The right of the people to bear arms is essential to liberty. It is a right that tyrants have always tried to destroy. When the patriots of the American revolution were making the charter of our liberties they inscribed in it the declaration that "the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed." It is written in the constitution of the Union and of several States, but the law was born in the hearts of our savage forefathers in the forests of Germany. Weapons were carried by the ancient Germans on all occasions, and were even held in sanctity and reverence. "Thou shalt swear to me," said a German warrior, "by the deck of the ship, and by the rim of the shield, by the withers of the horse and by the point of the sword." It was considered dishonorable for a man to die without weapons in his hands, a feeling which endured nearly 1000 years in the English race. In the Eleventh century of the Christian era Siward, Earl of Northumberland, lay dying of mortal illness. Feeling that his end was nigh, he exclaimed, "What a shame that I could not die in so many battles, but must now end like a cow. At least put on my breast plate, gird on my sword, set my helmet on my head, my shield in my left hand, my battle ax in my right, so that a brave warrior like myself may die like a warrior." As the life of every German was spent in war, so after life, the crown of immortality was won only by the brave. None but warriors entered Walhalla, the happy home of the dead. These were blest in proportion to the number of enemies each had slain. At the burial of a warrior his weapons were placed in the grave along with his body. He would need them in Walhalla...."- President George T. Winston of the University of Texas. Excerpted from: "An address delivered before the Sam Houston Normal Institute at Huntsville, Texas, May 30, 1898." [The Houston Daily Post, June 6, 1898. Pg 8]

"the right of the individual to safeguard himself and his house by keeping himself armed...."

Right to Bear Arms.

   The words from Article II., amendments to the Constitution of the United States, "A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of free people, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed," evidently have a community meaning; but they also carry along with them the right of the individual to safeguard himself and his house by keeping himself armed with the necessary means of defense. The law against carrying concealed weapons, now on the statute books of most of the states, is a matter quite foreign to the broad principles of the right of keeping and bearing arms.

[The Pickens Sentinel, Pickens, S.C., June 18, 1914. Volume 44 Number 6 Pg. 2]

Democrats: "has deprived American citizens of their right of suffrage; their right to bear and keep arms...."

From the Iowa Pilot of Sept. 19.

Border Ruffianism in Winterset.

   Mr. Editor: No person to whatever political party or creed he may belong, who observes and notes the movements of the Pro-Slavery party, can fail to see, that the Democratic party are used, by the Slave Oligarchy, for the purpose of spreading Slavery over the Territories of this nation, and to suppress the freedom of speech and the freedom of the press.

   "To prove this let facts be submitted to a candid world." Within the last six months, a citizen of Virginia, a slave-holder, purchased a mulatto woman for the only purpose of saving her from the Southern Slave pen. Subsequently he proposed to sell her to herself for three hundred dollars less than he gave for her." The offer was accepted by the woman and consummated. For this act of humanity, Mr. Davis, I believe, who was its author, was compelled, by the slave Democracy, to leave the State of Virginia!

   Within the same period of time, Mr. Underwood was forced by the Democratic allies of the South to flee from his house and family in the State of Virginia because he dared to maintain the Republican cause and openly avowed his intention to support Fremont for the Presidency.

   A few days ago the Republican party attempted to get up a Republican Electoral Ticket in the "Old Dominion," and for that purpose a Convention assembled at Wheeling, in Virginia. a Democratic Pro-Slavery mob dispersed them, and now a Mr. Smith, who was a member of that assembly, is imprisoned because he was patriotic enough to say he loved freedom.

   And these scenes occurred in the State that gave birth to WASHINGTON, and JEFFERSON, to MADISON, and MONROE, to CLAY and to HARRISON.

   Let not, then, the Slave power and its ally--the present Democratic party--say to us that "you are sectional, when they will not permit us to form an electoral ticket in the Southern States, unless we do so at the peril of our lives and our liberty.

   In the recent Legislature of Texas a Mr. Sherwood was forced to resign his seat in that body, because he said that "Slavery could not legally exist in the Territories of the United States." When he was expelled he informed the Legislature that he would make known to the people of Texas his sentiments on African Slavery. Accordingly he sent an appointment to the place of his residence, stating that he would address the citizens on that subject. The Buchanan Democracy met and told him that this was a FREE country, but that he must not say one word about slavery. Mr. Sherwood's mouth was closed. His lips were sealed, because the institution for the spread of which, the Democracy are so zealously, working, will crumble at the touch of investigation.

   The Slave power, by its fast and subservient friend the Democratic party, has, on a National high way, by force deprived private citizens of the union of their property without any compensation and without any cause. It has submerged in the Missouri and Kansas rivers, printing presses because they advocated freedom of speech--it has tarred and feathered ministers of the gospel who have proclaimed the sins of Slavery, and has deprived American citizens of their right of suffrage; their right to bear and keep arms; it has deprived them of their National rights, and this in the name of Democracy and "Law and Order."

   These usages have not been confined to the Slave States, where all persons are compelled to bow to slavery--the house hold god of the present Democracy.

   Mr. Spear, who was editor of the Topeka Tribune, so long as the Democratic administration of Pierce would allow him to exercise the rights of a freeman, was in our town on the evening of 12th instant and was requested to state lo our citizens what had been his experience of Squatter Sovereignty, as practiced under Democratic rule. Mr. Spear made an unsuccessful effort to get into Kansas Territory, where he has a wife and five children having been repulsed by Border Ruffians.

   The Democracy of Winterset thought, and wisely, too, that an exposition of the wrongs which if Freemen have endured on the plains of Kansas, and which have been inflicted on them by the rulers which the Democratic party have placed over them, would be no credit to their party. Consequently some means were to be devised by which Mr. Spear would be deprived of the privilege of addressing us. That ignoble and dirty task was assumed by I.D. Guiberson, of this place, the addmitied leader the Pro-Slavery party of this County.

   The Methodist Episcopal Church had been procured for tho purpose of having Mr. Spear occupy it a short time. Mr. Guiberson, who has no control over it whatever, borrowed a key and STOLE INTO the house, and locked on those who have the care and custody of the building.--Some of the Trustees of the Church were present and were locked out of the building by this champion of human rights--this modern Democrat.

   Is there any difference in the principle between that man or set of men who will forcibly drive from a Territory men who have a right to live in it, and he who forcibly deprives you of the use and enjoyment of your property for political reasons? Not a whit. And if Mr. Guilberson and other coadjutors of the Slave cause here, had had the power which their brethren in Kansas, the Border Ruffians have, Mr. Spear would have met with the same treatment here he and others have experienced in that Territory at the hands of the Democracy there.

   The building in question has been occupied one evening in each week by the Buchanan Club of this place, of which Mr. Guiberson is a distinguished member. Mr. Guiberson threatens that he will leave the church if such men as Mr. Spear are permitted to preach their political heresies in it. The sooner lie executes his threat better for the church. This is not the first time that the freedom of speech has been attempted to be suppressed n Winterset, within the last tree Months and by members of the Democratic party in both instances. Indeed, our Democratic brethren are getting very PRO-SLAVERYISH. Such outrages as these are scarcely looked for in Charleston, South Carolina.

   The individual who committed this high handed outrage, has frequently boasted that certain men of our county shall never hold an office here. He has assumed the dictatorship and not only says whom we shall hear speak, but also says who shall not hold office. In a diminutive scale he is aiding, to the best of his ability, his fellow laborers in Kansas, who. having become tyrannical through the patronage of a tyrannical Executive, are trampling in the dust all the right of freemen, and who are outraging humanity in every way. This subservient tool and lick-spittle of the Slave Democracy will lb remembered by the people of this county.

[Holmes County Republican, Millersburg, Holmes County, Ohio, Thursday, October 23, 1856. Vol. 1. No. 9. Pg. 1]

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

"acknowledging the right of the private citizen to keep and bear arms for lawful purposes...."

Proclamation by the Governor.

   Our readers will of course read with particular attention the proclamation by Gov. Holden. It is a clear, calm, decided, patriotic document. It not only announces and approves, but proposes to defend the Constitutionality of the present reconstructed State governments; acknowledging the right of the private citizen to keep and bear arms for lawful purposes. It expreses a firm purpose to punish, as the law shall allow, all attempts to arm one class of citizens against another, for the purpose of assaulting or intimidating voters. The rights of all classes of electors to the peaceful exercise of the ballot are wisely and strongly guaranteed.

   The Governor hereby assures all good, law-abiding citizens that peace and security for life, rights and property shall be maintained. His appeal for the support of his fellow-citizens surely will not be unheeded. He shows himself to be a truly sleepless sentinel and an earnest and brave defender of popular liberty. But alone, single-handed his skill and bravery will be futile. The people, those who have cloaked him with authority must rally and by their words of cheer, and advocacy, everywhere endorsing and co operating with this measures, show those who would make mischief that they plot and conspire against a host--that they plot and conspire in vain.

   Let those who are importing arms into the State for murderous purposes, read, mark and inwardly digest.

[The Weekly North-Carolina Standard, Raleigh, N.C., Wednesday, October 21, 1868. Vol. XXXIV. No. 42. Pg. 1]

Chicago: "Revolvers sold without permits"...

[The Daily Missoulian, Missoula, Montana, Friday Morning, March 26, 1909. Vol. XXXV. No. 325. Pg. 7]

" that the law granting to free negroes in any event the right to carry firearms...."

House of Commons
Wednesday, Oct. 27th, 1852.

...Mr. McDugald, of Bladen from the same committee [the committee on the Judiciary], reported the bill to amend the act of 1840, chap. 30, entitled an act to prevent free negroes from carrying fire-arms, and recommended that it do not pass. Mr. Williams, of Warren. said:

   Mr. Speaker: Having had the honor of introducing this bill, and being prompted so to do, by the wishes of a large portion of my constituency, I feel it due to them as well as to myself, respectfully to request that the House do not concur in the report of the committee on the Judiciary in rejecting the bill. And in making this request, Mr. Speaker, I am not prompted by any undue feelings of revenge, or induced so to act from a disposition to persecute or oppress that unfortunate part of our population known as the free persons of color; but a sense of duty, as well as a proper regard for the interest of those I represent, and the sincere belief that the passage of the law will remedy a crying evil in the State of North Carolina, have influenced me to offer this bill. And I desire to submit a few remarks in defence of the bill now before the House. Sir, the amendment which I offer to the act passed at the General Assembly of 1840 and '41, simply takes from the County Courts the authority to grant license to tree persons of color to own, keep, or carry firearms; and I am well aware that this additional restriction upon free negroes will to some seem oppressive and tyrannical, for the reason that some few of them are industrious, and honestly labor for a livelihood . . . As the law now exists if you detect a free negro carrying firearms, and demand his authority for so doing, his reply is, "I have a license from the County Court," and whether he has or not, how many, I ask, put themselves to the trouble of examining the records of the Court to ascertain? And Sir, as the law now exists, if one free negro is authorized to carry firearms, the consequence is that every free negro in his neighborhood uses the same, and not unfrequently when the fear of detection is lost, [the] slaves are also permitted to use them, and Sir, what [are] these firearms used for? Is it for the purpose of [protecting] their crops, or for the purpose of killing lawful [game]? It is not, but most frequently to prowl about [and] over their neighbour's plantations, encouraging [idleness], setting a evil example to the slaves of the country and too often killing and maiming the stock of [those] who unfortunately live near them. Mr. Speaker, I [heard?] free negroes as a curse to any society, to any [community], to any government where the institution [of slavery] exists, for experience teaches us that as a class [they] do not live by honest employment, and I must [confess] that I am in favor of holding them in the [strictest] subjection that the laws of humanity will allow, and [putting] upon them every restriction that is necessary [to] guard and protect the community from their evil [example] or vicious habits. I wish, Sir, the laws of our country to teach free negroes, that while they choose to [remain?] and live among us they must respect our interest [and] keep within proper limits, and I know no way [more] effectually to teach them that lesson,than by the strong arm of the law.

   Mr. Speaker, I conceive it impossible that the passage of this bill could do harm, and I am satisfied it will be productive of much good, for while it deprives the free negro of no real benefit, it gives to us, to our slaves, and society a guarantee against the frequent depredations and damnable practices of free negroes in the use of fire-arms. I, Sir, judge of the good or evil of laws by their effect upon society; and I regret to say that the law granting to free negroes in any event the right to carry firearms does not answer the purpose for which it was intended, and this being the case, it is the duty of the Legislature to deprive them of that right.

   And, Mr. Speaker, I do not wish to be understood in proposing the amendment alluded to, as reflecting upon either my judgment or integrity of the County Courts; but, Sir, the liability to be imposed upon exists in them as well as in other bodies, and I well know that they have been frequently deceived by false witnesses and false representations as to the character and standing of free negroes, and thereby granted to very unworthy applicants the right to carry firearms. In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, suffer me to say that I am convinced the passage of the bill which I have introduced is demanded by the exigency of the case, and I trust that it will meet with a favorable consideration from this honorable body.

   The bill was rejected by a vote of 61 to 44.

[Weekly North Carolina Standard, City of Raleigh, North Carolina, Wednesday Morning,November 3, 1852. Volume XVIII. Number 944. Pg. 4]

Saturday, February 22, 2014

"The opinion is growing that women should know more of firearms...."

[The Perrysburg Journal, Perrysburg, Wood Co., O., Saturday, May 16, 1896. Vol. XLIV. No. 9 Pg. 8]

"The pistol is the weak man's right-of-way."

 "The pistol is the weak man's right-of-way."
- Myron W. Reed, [As quoted in The Indiana State Sentinel, September 3, 1884, Pg. 6 in the article: "That Suit"]
Myron Winslow Reed, (July 24, 1836 - January 30, 1899), was a Civil War veteran, celebrated preacher, and the West's foremost Christian Socialist. He demanded justice for Native Americans, women's suffrage, and assistance for the poor.

Friday, February 21, 2014

"laws and ordinances conflicting with this wise precaution are shortsighted and reflect nothing but the immature mental calibre of those who propose and enact them...."

THE RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS.

Relation of the Sullivan Law to the Constitutional Guarantee.

   To the Sun and New York Herald; Your recent correspondence in regard to the advisability of repealing the Sullivan law was interesting, among other things, from a brand new viewpoint.

   This law was attacked in a test case before the New York Supreme Court on the ground that it conflicted with the constitutional provision of the "right of the people to bear arms," but the act was decided to be constitutional on the ground that it came under the head of police regulation.

   In the light of developments of today this case was mistried, however, from A to Z. The sole  arguments brought out at the time were based upon the assumption of the right of a citizen to protect himself and his property against crooks and criminals. None understood at that time what many of us see clearly to-day, that the right to bear arms was intended to apply not in a personal sense to the hip pocket of an East Side gun toter but in the broadest sort of political and national sense, one worthy of the exemplary document in which the provision appears.

   A nation of armed citizens can no more be subjugated by an organized minority, or even by a traitorous army, than Niagara can be dammed with a tuning fork. A nation of unarmed citizens is ever in the peril of a Russian disaster. A nation of armed citizens can at all times assert the will of the majority.

   In this sense, then, the "right to bear Arms" takes on a brand new significance, It becomes the very keystone of the freedom of our great nation, and laws and ordinances conflicting with this wise precaution are shortsighted and reflect nothing but the immature mental calibre of those who propose and enact them.


   The "right to bear arms" certainly includes the right to obtain firearms without deterrent restriction, and to this extent and to the extent that persons may possess firearms in their homes for legitimate protection against crooks, Communists, Bolshevists and other out-laws, this constitutional provision may certainly be interpreted. In this way not only would we cover the original wise intent and purpose which the Constitution provides, but once more would citizens be enabled to defend themselves against the fresh crops of criminals daily bred in the hothouses of the crookedest law that ever held up a people at the pistol point of brazenly ignorant legislation.             R.
   New York, April 20.

[The Sun And The New York Herald, New York, Saturday, May 1, 1920. Vol. LXXXVII.---No. 244. Pg. 8]

"Federal Government Provides Arms and Ammunition...."

[El Paso Herald, El Paso, Texas, Tuesday Evening, April 18, 1916, Home Edition, Pg. 10]

Saturday, February 15, 2014

"with the means of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety...."

"Resolved, That a declaration of rights, asserting and securing from encroachment the great principles of civil and religious liberty, and the unalienable rights of the people, together with amendments to the most ambiguous and exceptionable parts of the said Constitution of government, ought to be laid before Congress, and the convention of the states that shall or may be called for the purpose of amending the said Constitution, for their consideration, previous to the ratification of the Constitution aforesaid on the part of the state of North Carolina." . . .

..."DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.

"1. That there are certain natural rights, of which men, when they form a social compact, cannot deprive or divest their posterity, among which are the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
"2. That all power is naturally vested in, and consequently derived from, the people; that magistrates, therefore, are their trustees and agents, and at all times amenable to them.
"3. That government ought to be instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security, of the people; and that the doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish, and destructive to the good and happiness of mankind....

..."17. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state; that standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and therefore ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and protection of the community will admit; and that. in all cases, the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power...

[The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution [Elliot's Debates, Volume 4] DEBATES IN THE CONVENTION OF THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, ON THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. Friday, August 1, 1788.]

Friday, February 14, 2014

"that there are rights which no man under heaven can take from you..."

...If you will, in the language of freemen, stipulate that there are rights which no man under heaven can take from you, you shall have me going along with you; not otherwise.

[Here Mr. [Patrick] Henry informed the committee that he had a resolution prepared, to refer a declaration of rights, with certain amendments to the most exceptionable parts Of the Constitution, to the Other states in the confederacy, for their consideration, previous to its ratification, The clerk than read the resolution, the declaration of rights*, and amendments, which were nearly the same as those ultimately proposed by the Convention; which see at the conclusion.]

Mr. HENRY then resumed the subject. I have thus candidly submitted to you, Mr. Chairman, and this committee, what occurred to me as proper amendments to the Constitution, and a declaration of rights containing those fundamental, unalienable privileges, which I conceive to be essential to liberty and happiness. I believe that, on a review of these amendments, it will still be found that the arm of power will be sufficiently strong for national purposes, when these restrictions shall be a part of the government. I believe no gentleman who opposes me in sentiments will be able to discover that any one feature of a strong government is altered; and at the same time your unalienable rights are secured by them. The government unaltered may be terrible to America, but can never be loved till it be amended....

[The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution [Elliot's Debates, Volume 3] Tuesday, June 24, 1788.]

* - 17th. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated militia, including the body of the people capable of bearing arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state....

Thursday, February 13, 2014

"and asked those who had firearms to come to the assistance of the trainmen...."

A BATTLE ROYAL

Between Train Robbers and the t
Employee of the Railroad.

ONE PIRATE SHOT TO DEATH.

The Heroic Stand of the Engineer
and Fireman,

BOTH OF WHOM ARE WOUNDED.

The Miscreants Attack the Express
Car, Where They Are Met With a
Warm Reception of Bullets--A
Hand to Hand Fight Ensues, in
Which a Hunter's Shotgun Proves
Effective--The Robbers Got Noth-
ing but Lead--A Daring Attempt
Bravely Foiled.

   Centralia, ILL., Sept. 21.--The train robbery epidemic reached this place shortly before 12 o'clock last night, with far different results, however, than the recent robberies on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at Kessler, Ind., and the Mineral Range road, at Hancock, Mich.

   The attempted robbery here--for the bandits went away empty handed--occurred on the Illinois Central at the coal shute just south of the city. The train which was attacked by the out-laws was the Chicago-New Orleans limited, which left Chicago at 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon. The train was a heavy one and could not keep up to schedule time, arriving here about two and a half hours late.

   Yesterday afternoon three strangers were noticed lounging around the Illinois Central depot, but nothing was thought of it at the time, the belief being that they were waiting for a passenger train to go out of the city. It is supposed that these were the robbers. It is believed that when the train pulled up here the robbers got on the front end of the express car, and when the coal shnte was reached, where coal was taken on, they climbed over the tender, ready to carry out their plan of deviltry.

   As the train was about to start, after coaling, two of the outlaws confronted Engineer Young and Fireman McDonough and commanded them to stop
BUT THEY DID NOT MOVE.

"Don't move, for your life," hissed one of the robbers, but the engineer and fireman paid no heed to the command and made a spring for the robbers. The were met with shots from the revolvers in the hands of the robbers, which laid them low for the time being. Engineer Young was seriously wounded. He was shot twice, one of the bullets entering the shoulder and plowing through the arm down to the elbow, where it made its exit, and the other penetrated the back and lodged in the left hip. The fireman received a shot in the head and one in the leg.

   The two robbers then proceeded to the express car, where they demanded admittance, but were met with a volley from the express messenger and conductor of the train, Odum, who had gone to the express car to see the messenger. Volley after volley was fired by both the besieged and besiegers until the door was shot full of holes. Finally the bandits secured a sledge hammer and broke in the door, and then began another battle between the trainmen and the robbers. The former had erected a barricade of boxes and express packages, and a regular fusillade commenced.

   In the meantime one of the brakemen had gone to the rear and aroused the passengers and asked those who had firearms to come to the assistance of the trainmen. Among tbe passengers was an old-time brakemen named Jack Sanders. He had been hunting and had a shot gun with him. He immediately proceeded to the express car, gun in hand and on arriving there commenced firing on the two robbers. One of  Sanders' shots took effect in one of the robbers and he sank to the floor of the car bleeding profusely.
SANDERS' TRUSTY GUN.

   While Sanders was doing yeoman service the third robber, who had kept in the shade up to this time, came out and commenced firing at Sanders from the shadows of the coal chute. His aim was bad, however, and Sanders escaped unhurt. When the wounded robber fell to the floor the two others, seeing that the game was up, started on a run and disappeared in the darkness....

[The Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, Wheeling, W. VA., Friday, September 22, 1893. Volume XLII--Number 26. Pg. 6]

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

"The people are not to be disarmed of their weapons. They are left in full possession of them...."

"The people are not to be disarmed of their weapons. They are left in full possession of them. The government is administered by the representatives of the people, voluntarily and freely chosen.

"Under these circumstances, should any one attempt to establish their own system, in prejudice of the rest, they would be universally detested and opposed, and easily frustrated."--Mr. Zachariah Johnson, Wednesday, June 25, 1788. The Debates in the Several State Conventions [Virginia] on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution [Elliot's Debates, Volume 3]

"If our defence be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?"

"Are we at last brought to such an humiliating and debasing degradation, that we cannot be trusted with arms for our own defence? . . . If our defence be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?"--Patrick Henry, Monday, June 9, 1788. The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution [Elliot's Debates, Volume 3]

Monday, February 10, 2014

"The citizens petitioned the General for permission to leave the town, and he promised, on surrendering their arms..."

"...Despairing of driving the Colonists to resistance by any other means than actual hostility, a detachment of the army at Boston marched into the country in all the array of war; and, unprovoked, fired upon, and killed several of the inhabitants. The neighbouring farmers suddenly assembled, and repelled the attack. From this, all communication between the town and country was intercepted. The citizens petitioned the General for permission to leave the town, and he promised, on surrendering their arms, to permit them to depart with their other effects. They accordingly surrendered their arms, and the General violated his faith. Under various pretences, passports were delayed and denied; and many thousands of the inhabitants are, at this day, confined in the town, in the utmost wretchedness and want. The lame, the blind, and the sick, have indeed, been turned out into the neighbouring fields; and some, eluding the vigilance of the centries, have escaped from the town, by swimming to the adjacent shores....By order of the Congress, John Hancock President, Philadelphia, July 28, 1775."

[The Address to the People of Ireland, Pennsylvania Packet, 7 August, 1775. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. FRIDAY, JULY 28, 1775]

"that the doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish, and destructive..."

Another engrossed form of the ratification, agreed to on Wednesday last, containing the proposed Constitution of government, as recommended by the federal Convention on the seventeenth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, being prepared by the secretary, was read and signed by the president, in behalf of the Convention

On motion, Ordered, That the said ratification be deposited by the secretary of this Convention in the archives of the General Assembly of this state.

Mr. WYTHE reported, from the committee appointed, such amendments to the proposed Constitution of government for the United States as were by them deemed necessary to be recommended to the consideration of the Congress which shall first assemble under the said Constitution, to be acted upon according to the mode prescribed in the 5th article thereof; and he read the same in his place, and afterwards delivered them in at the clerk's table, where the same were again read, and are as follows:--

"That there be a declaration or bill of rights asserting, and securing from encroachment, the essential and unalienable rights of the people, in some such manner as the following:--

    "1st. That there are certain natural rights, of which men, when they form a social compact, cannot deprive or divest their posterity; among which are the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
    "2d. That all power is naturally invested in, and consequently derived from, the people; that magistrates therefore are their trustees and agents, at all times amenable to them.
    "3d. That government ought to be instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people; and that the doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish, and destructive to the good and happiness of mankind....

..."17th. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state; that standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and therefore ought to be avoided, as far as the circumstances and protection of the community will admit; and that, in all cases, the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power....

[The Debates in the Several State Conventions [Virginia] on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution [Elliot's Debates, Volume 3] Friday, June 27, 1788.]

"17th. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms..."

...17th. That the people have a right to keep and bear arms; that a well regulated militia, including the body of the people capable of bearing arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free state; that the militia shall not be subject to martial law, except in time of war, rebellion, or insurrection; that standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be kept up, except in eases of necessity; and that at all times, the military should be under strict subordination to the civil power; that in time of peace no soldier ought to be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, and in time of war, only by the civil magistrate, in such manner as the law directs....

...Under these impressions, and declaring that the rights aforesaid cannot be abridged or violated, and that the explanations aforesaid are consistent With the said constitution; and in confidence that the amendments hereafter mentioned will receive an early and mature consideration, and conformably to the fifth article of said constitution; speedily become a part thereof: we, the said. delegates, in the name, and in the behalf, of the people of the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, do, by these presents, assent to, and ratify, the said constitution; in full confidence, nevertheless, that, until the amendments hereafter proposed and undermentioned, shall be agreed. to and ratified, pursuant to the aforesaid fifth article, the militia of this state will not be continued in service out of this state for a longer term than six weeks, without the consent of the Legislature thereof; that the Congress will not make or alter any regulation in this state respecting the times, places, and manner of holding election for Senators or Representatives, unless the Legislature of this state shall neglect or refuse to make laws or regulations for the purpose, or from any circumstance be incapable of making the same; and that, in those cases, such power will only be [Page 161] exercised until the Legislature of this state shall make provision in the premises; that the Congress will not lay direct taxes within this state, but where the moneys arising from the impost, tonnage, and excise, shall he insufficient for the public exigencies; nor until Congress shall have first made a requisition upon this state to assess, levy, and pay, the amount of such requisition, made agreeable to the census fixed in the said constitution, in such way and manner as the Legislature of this state shall judge best; and that Congress will not lay any capitation or poll tax.

Done in convention at Newport, in the county of Newport, in the state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, the twenty-ninth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety, and in the fourteenth year of the independence of the United States of America.

By order of the convention,

DANIEL OWEN,President.

Attest,
Daniel Updike,Secretary.

[Senate Journal --WEDNESDAY, JUNE 16, 1790. Journal of the Senate of the United States of America, 1789-1793 WEDNESDAY, JUNE 16, 1790. Library of Congress, American Memory, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875]

Tuesday, February 04, 2014

"As soon as the train reached the stockade there ensued a desperate fight with firearms of all description...."

BATTLE AT VIRDEN

CLASH BETWEEN MINERS AND IM
PORTED LABORERS.

Dead Will Number a Dozen and the Wounded Twice That Number--Miners' Loss the Greatest--Few Fatalities Occurred on Board the Train; or Inside the Stockade--Hired Guards of the Coal Company Responsible for Many Deaths.

 VIRDEN, Ills., Oct. 13.--The little town of Virden is now comparatively quiet after a day of riot and bloodshed, the long expected clash between the union miners and imported negroes.

   At 12:40 o'clock a Chicago and Alton special train bearing 200 negro miners from the South arrived at the stockade around the Chicago-Virden Coal company's mines and immediately a terrific firing began. The list, as far as known, stands seven dead and eighteen wounded.

Miners Were Awaiting Them.

   For the past two weeks rumors have reached Virden daily that a train having negroes from Alabama would reach the city and the Chicago and Alton depot has been surrounded day and night by vigilant miners determinedly awaiting their arrival. When the Chicago and Alton limited passed about 10 a.m., displaying flags on the rear indicating that a special was following, the word was spread and a dense crowd of miners lined the station platform, while another crowd collected at the entrance of the stockade, a half mile north of the station. D.B. Kiley, a Chicago and Alton detective, stood guard at the switch at the north end of the station platform to see it was not tampered with. At 12:40 p.m. the train appeared at the north end and shots were fired from the south end announcing the special's
arrival. Immediately shots were fired from the train and the battle was on. Soon the train had arrived at the north end of the switch where Kiley was standing. He was talking with two companions when suddenly he threw up his hands and fell with a

Bullet Through His Brain.

He was the first man killed. The miners were firing into the train and the negro passengers were returning the fire. As soon as the train reached the stockade there ensued a desperate fight with firearms of all description. The negroes kept up a steady fire and the carnage of battle reigned. The miners and the train were enveloped in a cloud of smoke and the shooting sounded like a continuous volley. Engineer Burt Tigar received a bullet in his arm and dropped from his seat. His fireman seized the throttle, pulled it open, and with a jerk the train was under full speed, carrying the load of wounded negroes to Springfield. The train stopped at the stockade only two minutes. Its departure did not cause the firing to cease. The tower of the stockade was filled with sharpshooters, armed with Winchesters, and they kept up a steady fire into the crowd of union miners. Eye witnesses say the dead miners were killed after the train had departed. It is not known how many men are stationed behind the walls of the stockade, but an estimate is placed between 25 and 30.

TANNER MEANS IT.

Said Imported Negroes Could Not Land in Virden and They Go On.

   VIRDEN, Ills., Oct. 14.--The excitement of Wednesday prior to the arrival of the negro train was equaled last night when it became known that a special train consisting of one box car, three apparently empty coaches and a caboose that had passed through here at 6:20 o'clock bore two carloads of negroes taken through here to Springfield on the day of the fight. The train went south and by a clever ruse succeeded in passing through Virden quietly and without interference. A big crowd of miners was at the station, but the militia held them in check. When the train stopped at the stockade, Captain Fevier, who was in command, shouted:

Not Allowed to Disembark.

   "Don't allow any one to disembark from that train."

   The gate was opened and a file of soldiers rushed out on the double quick with fixed bayonets and lined up alongside the train. General Manager Lukens made a formal request that the employes be allowed to land and enter the stockade. Captain Fevier declined to grant this. Then Mr. Lukens put it the form of a demand, but the officer replied that he was under orders from Governor Tanner to prevent the disembarkation of any negro miners at the works and he would have to carry out these instructions. General Manager Lukens protested in vain and the train pulled out, headed south.

   Following is the revised list of dead: ERNEST KITTERLY, miner, Mount Olive. ELLIS SMITH, miner, Mount Olive. ED WELSH, miner, Springfield. WILLIAM BLUE, miner, Springfield. ERNEST KEMLER, miner, Mount Olive. A.H. BENEMAN, miner, Girard. FRANK BILICU, miner, Springfield. ED GREEN, miner, Mount Olive. ERNEST LONG, miner, Mount Olive. D. H. KILEY, Chicago and Alton detective, Chicago. A.W. CARROLL, guard on train. A. W. MORGAN, guard, killed in stockade. THOMAS PRESTON, guard, killed at stockade. WILLIAM HARMON, miner, .Giriird.

   The number of injured will not much exceed the first estimate of 20. Of these a few are in a critical Condition.

[Mower County Transcript, Austin, Mower County, Minnesota, Wednesday, October 19, 1898. Vol. XXXI--No. 32. Pg. 6]

'I was just doing my job/following orders'

   The headline has been a common reply of many in law enforcement and military. It was also the response given by many of the Nazi's at the Nuremburg trials. As well as many tyrants down throughout the history of the world. Many of these people carry arms as a part of their jobs. And there are an innumerable amount of instances where those arms were used illegally. Often resulting in the deaths of the innocents they were hired by We The People to serve.

   The men that founded our Constitutional Republic were well aware of the failings in fallen human nature. Especially when it comes to those that possess "power". For they knew that "power corrupts", and that "absolute power corrupts absolutely". Which is the precise reason they made a system of "checks and balances" in order to keep "power" in check.

   The final "check" in our intended system of government. Is that of the citizens having the right to keep and bear arms for individual and common defense. And this against all enemies; foreign or domestic. And this right was to be free from all government interference. Which is made quit clear by their employing the restriction; "shall not be infringed".

   Any type of "control", "restriction" or "regulation" of a Constitutionally secured right. Is clearly a violation of that right that was intended to be secured. And is in all actuality a criminal act perpetrated by those that enacted or uphold it. Which is obviously perversely done in order that the perpetrators would not have to face immediate retribution for their criminal acts.

"The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms shall NOT be infringed."

   Was intended to keep hired servants in their delegated place for almost 223 years. To maintain that servants remain servants, and that We The People remain their masters.